"Hardware is evolving quickly and both operating system
designers and end users must keep up with these rapid changes.
In this short paper, we'll show how Linux is evolving to
support the many hardware circuits used to track power consumption
and to monitor hardware, and how the end user may take advantage of
"The Linux kernel doesn't directly interact with the
power-management chips of IDE controllers. Therefore, you'll not
find any mention of the IDE time-out in the Linux source code or in
the configuration options of your kernel. However, you can set the
power-management options of your IDE disk by means of an external
system command named hdparm. It must be executed with super-user
privileges because it chats directly with your IDE controller by
reading and writing in its I/O ports."
"Even user-level applications may implement power-saving
features. For example, the command: xset s 60 instructs the X
Window Server to switch off the screen if the server itself remains
inactive for 60 seconds. No hardware timer is directly involved
here, since the server receives any keypress and thus can implement
the time-out mechanism on its own. Moreover, the Linux kernel is
not aware of what is going on because the X server handles the
graphics card directly."
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