"Once upon a time, the World Wide Web was a relatively static
place. The Web server's sole function was to simply deliver a
requested Web page, written in HTML, to a client browser. Over
time, developers started looking for ways to interact with users by
providing dynamic content--that is, content that displayed a form
or executed a script based on user input. Thus Server Side Includes
(SSI) and the Common Gateway Interface (CGI) were born.
"A Server Side Include page is typically an HTML page with
embedded command(s) that are executed by the Web server. An SSI
page is parsed by the server (a 'normal' Web page is not), and if
SSI commands are found they are executed before the resultant
output is delivered to the requesting client. SSI is used in
situations that demand a small amount of dynamic content be
inserted in a page, such as a copyright notice or the date. SSI can
also be used to call a CGI script; however, there is a performance
penalty associated with SSI. The server must parse every page
designated as SSI-enabled, which is not an optimal solution on a
heavily loaded Web server.
"The CGI is a standard for communication between a program or
script, written in any one of several languages, and a Web server.
The CGI specification is very simple: input from a client is passed
to the program or script on STDIN (standard input). The program
then takes that information, processes it, and returns the result
on STDOUT (standard output) to the Web server. The Web server
combines this output with the requested page and returns it to the
client as HTML. CGI applications do not force the server to parse
every requested page; only pages containing CGI-recognized
arguments involve further processing..."
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