"Linux is as solid an operating system as you'll ever use -- but
that doesn't mean that the hardware you're running it on is equally
solid. Hard drives are as prone to errors as are file systems. And
no matter how stable an OS is, it can't prevent you from
accidentally deleting files and/or folders. But don't despair:
Linux is equipped with a number of tools that can help you repair
filesystem errors and reclaim deleted files.
"Which tools? To start, e2fsck, scalpel, and lsof will get you
the farthest. Let's take a look at how each of these can be used to
help your file systems be free of errors and your files be freed
from accidental deletion. Checking Ext2/Ext3/Ext4 Filesystems with
"The e2fsck utility takes after the original UNIX fsck utility,
but is used to check the Ext2/Ext3/Ext4 family of filesystems. It's
used to check, and repair, filesystems that have been shut down
uncleanly or otherwise developed errors."