Joe Pranevich — Wonderful World of Linux 2.4 (Quite Nearly There Edition)

[ This is the third edition of this article. It has been
superseded by a later edition-lt ed

By Joe

(Before we begin, I am still missing information on video4linux,
SCSI, sound, ftape, and other subsystems. If you know something
that I didn’t include, please let me know. I can barely keep up
with the kernel traffic and reading patches as-is; going back over
archives is not something that I’m capable of at the moment.)

A long time ago, in a galaxy not to far from this one, I wrote
an article. It
wasn’t much, just a laundry list of the new and improved features
of Linux 2.2. That was a long time ago and the newness of Linux 2.2
is beginning to wear off; it’s even lost that new kernel smell. And
so with anxious eyes, we set our sights towards the future of
Linux: Linux 2.4. In the Linux world, it is uncommon to announce
release dates; new versions are released when they are ready and
not before. With that said however, Linux 2.3 has entered into a
feature freeze and looks to be ready for the masses sometime around

Before we move into the meat and bones of the situation, I
always like to step back for a moment and say a few things. Linux
2.2 marked a major milestone in Linux’s evolution: it was the first
kernel release which truly caught the eye of the all-seeing media.
No longer would just obscure computer publications trumpet the
latest and greatest from the Linux worl, but mainstream
publications as well. With the attention has come the inevitable
FUD (Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt) that we prayed would never come,
but out of this media molasses we have emerged as a stronger
community. While many of Linux’s weak points were trumpeted and
many members of the Linux community despaired, there were still the
legions of kernel hackers that worked day and night to take those
weaknesses, acknowledge them, and work to fix them. I think they’ve
done wonderful job.

As a side effect of the increased media attention, many members
of the media chose to use my original article as a guide, a
reference to the new changes and features in Linux 2.2 in the
absence of any official press release. To be honest, I was
flattered. I do ask however that you cite the source whenever
possible (both myself and the community who made this document
possible) and if you require any clarifications, please do not
hesitate to email me at the addresses below with your questions. If
you would like to reprint or translate this article in full or in
part in any medium, please email me at the address below so that I
can be aware of your work before you do so. I will make a list of
translations that I am aware of available.

This is still a draft document and may not be 100% accurate.
Caution is advised. Also, new subsections have been added based on
comments I received. I may keep or removed them later depending on
user input. Some of these subsections will become full-blown
articles at some point in the future. Please let me know what you

Now, without further ado, Linux 2.4. This draft of the WWoL2.4
is subtitled the “quite nearly there” edition and will be
definitely followed by a number of later drafts, at least 3 of
which I will term “final”. We all have different notions of what
changes are important, if I don’t mention a particular update that
you feel is important, by all means please let me know. However now
that a feature freeze has been announced, it is likely that we will
soon have the first “final” draft in approximately three weeks give
or take a couple years.

Joe - [email protected]    (Home) 
      [email protected]              (Work)

< Many thanks to linuxtoday for providing me with the spiffy
email addy. Other than the email, I’m in no way associated with nor
speak for Linux Today. This work also has absolutely nothing to do
with Lycos, my employer. The views here are all mine and this
article does not constitute an endorsement from Lycos or any other
such thing. They are however a pretty damn fine company to work
for. >

Linux Internals

Linux 2.2 was a great improvement over Linux 2.0. It supported
many new file systems, it supported a completely rethought caching
system for file names, and it was much more scalable than Linux
2.0. Linux 2.4 will build on the great advancements provided under
Linux 2.2 to become an even better platform for desktop, server,
and embedded tasks. However, it is the intent of the Linux kernel
developers to get Linux 2.4 into the hands of the end users more
quickly. To meet this goal, Linux 2.4 will understandably not be as
different from Linux 2.2 as Linux 2.2 was from Linux 2.0. I think
you will agree however that the advancements in Linux 2.4 will be
just as noteworthy as previous versions. (Or else I wouldn’t need
to be writing this!)

What, at the core, is the Linux kernel? Just as the kernel is
the heart of the Linux (or GNU/Linux or whatever) Operating System,
the kernel itself can be divided into core and non-core parts.
Linux is much more than just a collection of assorted device
drivers, as any operating system must be. It’s what binds these
drivers together into a cohesive unit that matters. It’s the
scheduler, the resource allocator, the virtual filesystem layer,
memory management, and so many other unsung features that are the
real heroes of the Linux world. These are the portions of the Linux
operating system that really define what is Linux because on every
platform that Linux has been ported to from i386 (Intel-compatible
PC), to ARM (embedded devices), to Sparc64 (high-end servers) this
code is the same. In many ways, this “heart” of Linux 2.4 is
different than Linux 2.2’s and most of the subsystems that I just
listed have been changed in one way or another.

Linux 2.2 and earlier Linux’s included a base resource
management system which was used rather bluntly to allocate and
keep track of IO ports and IRQ lines and the other limited niceties
of computer architectures. Unfortunately it was deficient in a
number of important ways which proved crucial to the needs of a
modern desktop operating system. The new system under Linux 2.4
includes a much more generic implementation which allows for nested
resource groups, removed the dependencies on pre-defined resource
types, and otherwise made it easier to use for a majority of the
tasks required by driver developers. Additionally, this has laid
the groundwork for ISA PnP support which is discussed more fully
later in this article. This quick hack by Linus will probably be
one of the most influential changes to go into the 2.4 kernel.

The virtual filesystem layer (VFS) has also been heavily
modified from earlier Linuxes. Linux 2.2 featured a number of
wonderful changes to this layer that allowed for better caching and
a much more efficient system overall. However, the system in Linux
2.2 still had a number of important limitations which were resolved
in time for Linux 2.4. One major limitation to the way Linux 2.2
handled things was its use of two buffers for caching: one for
reading and one for output. As you can imagine, this made things
very complicated as the kernel developers had to code with kid
gloves to always ensure that these caches were in synch when they
had to be. Linux 2.4 brings this wall completely down by removing
the multiple cache system and putting all the work into a single
page caching layer. This change makes Linux 2.4 more efficient, the
code is easier to understand for developers, and the amount of
memory needed for the caches have been split roughly in two. During
the course of this rewrite, many race conditions (errors caused
when multiple processes “race” for access to unprotected variables)
were removed and the code streamlined to allow significantly better
scaling to higher-end systems and disk writes to happen faster when
multiple volumes are involved.

One common problem with Linux 2.2 that interfered with high-end
(Intel?) machines was its process limitations. Linux 2.2 only
allowed you to have 1024 processes or threads running at once. With
high-end systems with many thousands of users, this could become a
problem very quickly. Linux 2.4 has gotten rid of this relic and
implemented a scalable limit which can be configured at run time
and is only limited by the amount of memory in the system. On
high-end servers with as little as half a gigabyte of RAM
installed, it is easily possible to support as many as 16 thousand
processes at once. Other users have reported being able to run many
more than that on their specific systems. This was one of the major
bottlenecks that kept Linux out of the Enterprise markets.

In terms of memory consumption, Linux 2.4 will require
approximately the same amount of memory as does Linux 2.2. Some
subsystems have been added or expanded and some have been
streamlined. Some obsolete code has been removed. There are even
certain cases where some systems will require less memory than
Linux 2.2! It should be noted also that Linux 2.4 will also support
/more/ memory than its predecessor. As of Linux 2.4, up to 4
gigabytes of RAM will be supported on Intel machines. This
additional RAM will not be treated in exactly the same way as lower
RAM (due to Intel design features) but will however be used by many
in-kernel structures.

Binary Types

One often overlooked portion of the Linux kernel is the program
loader; the bit that takes your programs, loads them properly, and
runs them. Many people are not aware however that Linux 2.2 added
support for a “misc.” binary loader, a flexible module designed to
allow you to associate binary types with “helper” applications in
much the same way as Windows or a comparable operating system
would. This would, for example, allow you to associate all Windows
applications on your machine with WINE (Windows Emulator) so that
when you typed “./notepad.exe” the right thing would happen.
(However it is generally not a good idea to take this concept to
the extreme at the kernel level and many of the “associations”
provided by Windows would be best left handled by your window or
file manager. It would be a bad idea, for example, to be able to
run “/etc/passwd” and have it come up in a text editor.) This was
considered a big win by many because it allowed many different
groups, such as the WINE and Dosemu (DOS Emulator) groups, to
publish instructions for making their programs run “native” by the

Linux 2.2 and Linux 2.0 included support for running Java
applications (or rather, starting a Java interpreter/compiler when
necessary) and was the first OS to do so at the kernel level. When
a java application was executed, the Java binary loader would load
up your Java interpreter with the proper arguments. Naturally, it
would be easy to implement this functionality using the newer
“misc.” loader type and instructions were provided with Linux 2.2
on how to do so. Linux 2.4 will finally put the old binary loader
to rest and all users who used the old module will have to upgrade
their configuration to make the new association.

Linux 2.4 will be much more dependent on the ELF format than
Linux 2.2 was, although Linux 2.2 was the first version of Linux to
require the kernel to be compiled as ELF. (ELF is an advanced
binary format that includes support for multiple code and data
sections, easier support for shared libraries, and other niceties.
It is approximately akin to the Win32 format, however better
designed and without nearly as much cruft.) By more fully
exploiting the ELF binary format, the kernel developers could make
some pieces of code more modular and easy to maintain. Many types
of drivers will become more “plug and play” (if I me be so bold as
to abuse that term) as they will be initialized based on how they
are linked rather than by having an explicit initialization line in
the core code.

In addition, there are some other noteworthy changes to Linux
2.4 that I should mention before we move on into the specific
subsystems. Linux 2.4 will be in some ways more standards compliant
than previous Linuxes with the adoption of support for POSIX clocks
and timers, allowing for non-rtc devices to be used as clocks
internally. (This would be specialized hardware, generally.) The
NFS filesystem, the standard network filesystem used under most
UNIXes, now supports most of the features of version 3 of the
protocol and Linux will better be able to communicate with machines
which communicate with this standard (this will be discussed
further in the filesystem section, below.) In addition, some minor
changes were made to the threading model and elsewhere to make
things more compatible.

The Many Flavors of Linux

While infrastructure is the heart of the Linux operating system,
it is the parts of the operating system that are specific to the
individual flavors of Linux that are most obvious to the end users.
These “arms and legs” of the Linux operating system include all of
the architecture dependent and independent driver code which
control the processors, disk drives, ports, and everything else
that provides real access to the computer. For the purposes of this
article, I will be concentrating on i386 Linux because it is the
flavor that I am most familiar. There have been great advancements
in every port since the launch of Linux 2.2 however most of these
ports are beyond my direct experience. (If there is interest in
this material, I will be more than happy to write appendixes if
someone would provide me with a list of updates to a specific
port.) Since the launch of Linux 2.2, there have been only one new
port (SuperH) integrated into what will be Linux 2.4 but this may
change before release.

On Intel-compatible hardware, Linux 2.4 includes the same
excellent support for processors as did Linux 2.2. This includes
optimizations for 386, 486, 586 (Pentium), and 686 (Pentium Pro /
Pentium II / Pentium III) processors, as well as “compatible”
counterparts such as those made by AMD and Cyrix. Additionally,
Linux 2.4 will include additional support for hardware present with
modern chips. While Linux 2.2 includes support for Intel’s Memory
Type Range Registers (MTRRs) to increase performance to some kinds
of high-bandwidth devices, Linux 2.4 has taken this support even
further by supporting variants common to the compatible chips.
(This includes both the double MTRRs present with AMD K7 processors
and the MCR variant preferred by Cyrix.) Linux 2.2 also included
support for the IO-APIC (Advanced Programmable Interrupt
Controller) which allowed interrupts to be spread across multiple
processors in a multi-processing system. Linux 2.4 will, as
expected, take this to the next level and support some high-end
systems which actually contain multiple IO-APIC controllers; this
will allow these machines to scale even better than before.

To my knowledge, the only multi-processor systems which we still
do not completely support are some very old 486 ones that mix 486DX
and 486SX chips in the same system. This is mainly because the SX
chips did not contain math coprocessors and there is some
difficulty in making sure that applications that need floating
point math get to work on the right one. As you can imagine, there
isn’t much call for this feature. (There may be other buggy
chipsets combinations that are unsupported, however I am not
personally aware of them.) Considering that no one in their right
mind will still be using such a system (they could easily upgrade
to a chip with a FPU), I don’t consider this much of a

Linux 2.4 and Merced (ia64)

While not yet delivered to the starving masses, Intel’s 64-bit
replacement to the x86 line is coming down the pipeline. While
Linux 2.4 does not include any direct support for the chip (since
it is not out yet, that would be difficult), there are multiple
groups working to make sure that there will be Linux on Merced
immediately after its release. This porting process is no doubt
simplified by Linux’s existing support for 64-bit processors
(including Compaq’s Alpha chips and the Sparc64) which are already
merged into the main Linux tree. This means that much of the
gruntwork in making 64-bit Linux on Merced a reality (making sure
that the kernel and all its drivers do not believe that they “know”
what the size of datatypes are and how numbers are stored
internally, etc.) is already completed. (And has been for quite
some time.)

I do not want to imply that there are no remaining problems that
keep Linux from being “perfect” on 64-bit systems; that is not the
case. However a vast majority of the difficult and subtle parts are
completed and all that remains are problems derived from a legacy

Linux 2.4 and Pre-386 Intel

Surprisingly, I do get a number of questions about pre-386
Linux. The answer, at least right now, is that there is no such
animal. A sister project, ELKS (Embeddable Linux Kernel Subset) is
working to make a Linux-like operating system run on these
machines, including protected mode support for chips that support
it. This project is separate from Linux-proper however and is
outside the scope of this document.

Buses – ISA, PCI, USB, MCA,

Processors however are just a small part of the guts of a
computer. Equally important to its operation is its bus
architecture, the component of the system that is responsible for
(or irresponsible towards, as the case may be) internal and
external devices. Linux 2.4 has not yet touched much on the
internal workings of many of the supported busses, including
(E)ISA, VLB, PCI, and MCA except to work them into the new resource
management subsystem and fix bugs. The biggest news in this area is
that ISA PnP, the somewhat misguided attempt to support device
configuration and detection on the ISA bus, is finally supported at
the kernel level! In the future, this will allow PnP devices to
“just work” and not need any supplementary configuration utilities
to function properly.

There is more exciting news from this front however. Universal
Serial Bus, a new external bus type just now coming into prominence
for devices such as keyboards, mice, sound systems, and scanners is
now supported in the Linux kernel. At the time of this writing, the
support is not 100% and many individual and common USB devices are
not supported or not completely supported. I would be confident
however that the number of devices which are supported will only
rise over time, just as we observed a similar rise in the number of
framebuffer devices that are now supported. (The framebuffer was a
new feature to Linux 2.2, see below.) Currently, keyboards and mice
are working mostly as you would expect. Support for sound systems
is coming along rapidly. Other devices, such as modems and network
cards, already have preliminary support however their drivers are
not complete.

In addition to USB, I2O device (Intelligent Input/Output)
support, an extension of PCI, has been added in Linux 2.4. In
theory, this will allow for more operating system independent
devices and drivers to exist. Many I2O devices are already
functioning and more will be added before Linux 2.4.

PCMCIA support, the semi-external bus common in laptop
computers, is now supported from within the standard kernel
distribution. No longer will PCMCIA users need to download and
install separate packages to get their systems to work

Linux and ISA Plug-and-Play

I have heard time and time again the question “When will Linux
support Plug-and-Play?” that in and of itself can mean many things
and the Linux kernel has included support for many kinds of
“Plug-and-Play” devices for several revisions. Support for ISA PnP,
the Plug-and-Play specification that works as a superset of the ISA
bus, has long been a sore point for many Linux users. I am happy to
say that Linux 2.4 will finally include direct support for
configuring PnP devices although (as of this writing) many or most
drivers have not been updated to probe for their supported ISA PnP

Block Devices – Disk Drives, RAID
Controllers, etc.

From most user’s points of view, there are three different
fundamental types of devices under Linux: block devices, character
devices, and network devices. We will discuss each of these in

Block devices are hardware whose data can be best expressed in
an array of bytes that can be accessed individually. (This is
simplified a bit.) To use a more computer savvy term, block devices
are devices that support random access; allowing a user to seek to
a specific place anywhere on the device to read from or write to
(this is also simplified a bit). Common examples of block devices
are harddisks, floppy drives, (anything that you can imagine as a
“drive”, mostly.), ramdisks, etc. If a device has special features
(for example, can be ejected), it will support these extras through
ioctls (I/O controls) which any program can use. Linux 2.2 already
supports the most common types of storage media for enterprise and
desktop use including RAID controllers, IDE and SCSI disks, and
many others. Linux 2.4 will build on this in a number of important

IDE is the most common type of disks used in PCs today. Each IDE
controller actually supports two separate disks (harddrives, cdrom
drives, etc.) which appear under Linux as separate block devices.
Linux 2.4 has improved on Linux 2.2’s support of IDE by more than
doubling the number of IDE controllers allowed in a system to 10.
(Previously, 4 was the maximum allowed.) This boosts Linux to a
theoretical limit of 20 IDE devices. There have also been some
changes to allow for better support for DVDs and CD-ROM changers.
While it may not be ready for Linux 2.4, there is ongoing work to
allow Linux to fully support rewritable CDs and DVDs in a
transparent fashion, for the time being however these should be
considered read-only under normal circumstances but a previously
formatted disk image can be copied out to the disk directly. And
finally, Linux 2.3 has access the UDMA features of many new
hardware chipsets and can work better around the bugs present in
some pieces of hardware.

The SCSI subsystem has advanced in Linux 2.4, the most obvious
example being in the number of new SCSI controllers supported. The
long awaited SCSI rewrite has not happened for Linux 2.4 although a
major cleanup effort is underway.

One idea adopted from the commercial UNIX world into Linux is
the concept of a “raw” I/O device. A raw device is one whose
accesses are not handled through the caching layer and whose
actions are immediately and always synchronous with the “hard” data
on the disk or elsewhere. This idea has many enterprise uses as it
allows Linux to better maintain data integrity in the case of a
system failure for ultra-important data. Also, this capability has
been exploited by database applications which feel that they can do
a better caching job than the native filesystem. What kept this
idea from being adopted before was that commercial UNIXes did not
provide a scalable process to allocate and access these devices,
rather they required that a “raw” device node be allocated for each
and every block device on the system. After much thought and many
rejected ideas, this functionality was finally allowed in by
creating a pool of “raw” device nodes which then can be associated
with any arbitrary block device. Thus, we need only have nodes
allocated for the number of raw devices that we will be using at
any one time.


Block filesystems can be used in many ways. The most common way
to use a block devices is to mount a filesystem on it. (Internally,
the filesystem code is like an overlay on the block device driver.)
It should also be mentioned that these filesystems (as well as
nearly everything else) will work with all versions of Linux and
are not only applicable to i386 Linux.

Linux 2.4 includes all of the new filesystems present in Linux
2.2. These filesystems include FAT (for MSDOS), NTFS (for Windows
NT/2000), VFAT and FAT32 (for Windows 9x), HFS (for Macintoshes),
and many, many others. All of these filesystems have been rewritten
to some extent, sometimes a very large extent, to support the new
page caching system and will be more efficient because of it. On
the flip side however, binary-only filesystem modules designed for
Linux 2.2 will not work with Linux 2.4. (Unlike some software
firms, Linux does not generally provide for back-compatibility at
the module level. Generally, open source modules can adapt quickly
enough and binary module providers are expected to do the same or
release the code.)

Some users will however notice major improvements to allow for
better compatibility with other systems. OS/2 users will finally be
able to both read and write to their disks under Linux. (This
change is a long time in coming.) NT users unfortunately don’t yet
have that luxury unless they wish to use an “experimental” driver
which may lead to disk corruption under certain situations. Linux
2.4 will also include a couple of improvements designed to make it
interoperate better with other UNIX-like operating systems. Key to
this is Linux 2.4’s upcoming support for the IRIX efs filesystem
and the IRIX disklabel (partition table) format. Also, support for
NextStep has also improved as the UFS driver now supports its

Users who mount Windows shared drives via SMB (Server Message
Block protocol) will be pleased that there will no longer be a
compile time option for enabling workarounds for (released broken)
Win9x systems. Instead, Linux will be able to detect what kind of
system it is connecting to and enable bug fixes as needed. This
will make Linux a considerably better option for heterogeneous
networks. (This is a SMB client only, the popular Samba package can
be used if server features or access to printers is desired.)

Of special importance to many Linux users is Linux’s ability to
mount the shared drives of UNIX operating systems. Linux 2.4
includes for the first time the ability to access NFS shares which
conform to version 3 of the NFS protocol. NFS version 3 includes
many advantages over previous versions and it has been one of
Linux’s most often requested features for the enterprise user.

There are still some pieces of support that is currently lacking
in Linux 2.4. There is no support for journalizing filesystems, for
instance. Due to the relatively low fsck times and the ease of data
recovery journalizing filesystems support, this is considered by
many to be an entrance requirement to the enterprise. HFS+, the
successor to HFS and the filesystem used on some Macintosh disks,
is not yet supported. Also not supported is the UDF format, the
format commonly used on DVD drives. It is hoped that these and
other “missing” features will be completed before 2.4 is ready for
release however there will be a code freeze coming soon.


Another, more complicated variety of block device is the
frame-buffer. A frame-buffer is simply a section of memory that
represents (or is) video memory to such an extent that writing to
this memory affects the colors of the pixels on a screen. This is
more complicated than some other block devices because it supports
ioctls to change the palette and other functions associated to
video. (Which it might be possible to “format” this device and
mount a filesystem from it, I wouldn’t recommend you try.)

Linux 2.4 includes a number of new drivers and improvements to
old drivers. Especially important here is Linux’s support for many
more “standard” VGA cards and configurations, at least in some
mode. (Probably less than optimally.) Please remember that this
feature can be bypassed and (on i386) is only necessary for people
with certain systems which cannot be supported in any other way. At
this time, the XFree project provides many more drivers to many
more video cards than the kernel can support so it is not necessary
to use this feature to get X Windows support. (There is also a
library which will allow you direct video manipulation on some
hardware, if you don’t mind security conscious binaries.)

Character Devices – Keyboards, Mice,
Consoles, and Ports

The next kind of device that Linux recognizes are character
devices. These are any devices which can be read from or written to
but don’t have a “location” per se and can’t be accessed outside of
order. This includes terminals, ports, keyboards, mice, and other
things that you would expect. Linux 2.4 also features improvements
in this area.

The biggest news on this front is that Linux 2.4 will support
for the first time keyboards and mice attached to the Universal
Serial Bus. When plugged in, these input device will behave just as
if they were “normal” keyboards and mice. Additionally, Linux will
now work on more systems, including broken (or specially embedded)
ones where the keyboard is not pre-initialized by the BIOS. Also,
better support is provided for machines without keyboards in some
cases. (Mostly for buggy machines that don’t handle the lack of a
keyboard as well as one would like.)

As much as it may not appear so, all versions of Linux output to
the screen in character mode. (Linux supports a built-in extended
vt100 interface to handle cursor positioning. This is done using a
very small text-mode only frame-buffer device.) In the case of a
frame-buffer, Linux 2.2 and later support overlaying the
framebuffer driver with a terminal driver allowing identical
(sometimes even better) features as (than) the built-in text

Linux 2.4 does not include many major changes to this subsystem
however it does for the first time support redirecting the console
(the primary display used for Linux kernel messages) to the
parallel port for, for example, a printer. (Earlier versions of
Linux already supported redirecting messages to serial ports.) This
functionality will be of primary interest to some developers and
server applications which want to maintain a hard-copy of kernel
and debug messages that Linux uses.

Of course, Linux would not go far without excellent support for
ports, the truest form of character device. These can generally be
divided between serial and parallel varieties.

Serial support for Linux 2.4 has not changed much and many of
the same limitations from 2.2 still apply. (In particular, setting
module options is generally done with an external utility rather
than the standard parameters passed to modules.) Later versions of
Linux 2.2 and all versions of Linux 2.4 will allow one to share
IRQs on PCI serial boards; previously this was only allowed on ISA
cards and on-board serial ports. Some other pieces of multiport
hardware will be better supported under Linux 2.2. More updates and
new drivers are flowing in regularly.

In contrast, the parallel port subsystem has undergone some
major overhauls since 2.2. There is now a generic parallel port
driver for abstracted communication with “unknown” types of
parallel devices. This could be used, for example, by programs that
want to poll the parallel port for Plug-and-Play information as we
described earlier. It is these changes that allow us the
side-effect of being able to use the parallel port as a console.
Also, Linux 2.4 supports using all the different modes of modern
parallel ports, including writing to the parallel ports using DMA,
if supported in the hardware. This will speed up access to printers
and other parallel devices.

Infra-red support has progressed since Linux 2.2 and there have
been many changes in this area, including better network

In a separate department, there has been some (but little) work
since 2.2 on supporting so-called “WinModems” (or “soft modems” or
“Linmodems”). These are modems which exist largely in software and
whose drivers are often only provided by the manufacturer for
Windows. (Hence the common name.) While no code has been submitted
to Linus for the support of these beasts, it is possible that we
may see some support for them before 3.0. One major obstacle here
is that each and every WinModem is different; it is unlikely that a
driver for one would be applicable to another and the sheer number
of different types of WinModems would make this difficult or
impossible to ever get a decent selection of hardware supported.
Impossible odds have never phased open source developers however
and I for one will not be surprised when the first driver makes it
into the kernel, someday. Much of the legwork has already been

There are some other places where some people feel that Linux
2.4 could improve, of course. With the addition of USB we have the
chance to have multiple keyboards and mice attached to the same
bus. Linux 2.4 however does not have internal multi-heading of
these devices; you cannot assign one keyboard and one mouse to one
terminal and another set to a different terminal. Support for this
is provided in the GGI project, however this project’s code has not
yet (and may never be) synched into the mainstream kernel. (It is
however a good place to check if you need this functionality.)


Linux is not commonly regarded as a “user friendly” operating
system. Therefore, one would be surprised to learn that Linux 2.4
(and some later versions of Linux 2.2) includes support for its
first speech synthesizer card. These cards will allow Linux users
to hear all Linux output, including messages early in the boot
process. Very few operating systems can boast such complete support
for these devices at the kernel level. (Other patches and utilities
are still required to get the full use out if these cards, however
their presence in the kernel is a giant leap in the right direction
for Linux.)

Multimedia: Sound, TV, Radio,

On the complicated side of the character device list, we have
some of the “fluffier” devices to be supported by Linux. Linux, in
its emerging role as a desktop platform, tries very hard to support
these devices, including sound cards, TV and radio tuners, and
other sound and video output devices. To be honest, Linux 2.4 does
not include as many ground-breaking changes as Linux 2.2 did in
this respect. Linux 2.4 does however include updates and new
drivers for a variety of sound and video cards, including full
duplex support. Linux 2.4 and some later versions of Linux 2.2 also
include code which will allow some sound devices to more easily
allocate memory in required ranges; this should make the
configuration and use of some cards much easier.

Networking and Protocols

Even further distant from the simplicity of keyboards and mice,
networking and network hardware is one of the major areas where
Linux has always excelled. These beasts are neither “character” nor
“block” but inhabit a special space free of the need for device
nodes. Linux 2.4 will included many improvements to this layer
including new drivers, bug fixes, and new functionality added on to
existing drivers.

The Linux model of network sockets is one which is standard
across most UNIX variants. Unfortunately however, the standard does
have some deficiencies but these deficiencies can be corrected
without breaking the standard altogether. Under Linux 2.2 and
previous versions, if you have a number of processes all waiting on
an event from a network socket (a web server, for instance), they
will all be woken up when activity if detected. So, for every web
page request received, Linux would wake up a number of processes
which would each try and get at the request. As it does not make
sense for multiple processes to serve the same request, only one
will get to the data; the remainder will notice that it doesn’t
have anything to process and fall back asleep. Linux is quite
efficient at making this all happen as quickly as possible, however
it is still very inefficient… but there is a better way. Linux
2.4 includes changes which implement “wake one” under Linux which
will allow us to completely remove the “stampede effect”. In short,
“wake one” does exactly as its name indicates: wakes up only one
process in the case of activity. This will allow applications such
as Apache to be even more efficient and make Linux an even better
choice as a web server.

Linux 2.4 also includes a completely rewritten networking layer.
In fact, it has been made an unserialized as possible so that it
will scale far better than any previous version of Linux. In
addition, it contains many optimizations to allow it to work with
the particular quirks of the networking stacks in use in many
common operating systems, including Windows. It should also be
mentioned at this point that Linux is still the only operating
system completely compatible with the IPv4 specification (Yes,
IPv4) and Linux 2.4 boasts an IPv4 implementation that is much more
scalable than its predecessor. As Linux 2.2 became completely
compatible with the specification, the use of “colon mode” for
aliasing was depreciated. This functionality was completely removed
in Linux 2.4 and may require some advanced users to partially
rewrite scripts.

Next to the new network layer, the next most important
improvement in the Linux 2.4 network layer is the addition of code
to handle the DECNet protocols. This allows for better
interoperation with specialized Digital/Compaq systems.

For the low-end desktop users, PPP is an important part of day
to day life. Linux 2.4 includes some major rewrites and
modularization of much of the code, including a long awaited
combination of the PPP layers from the ISDN layer and the PPP layer
used on serial devices, such as modems.

I appreciate any comments that you may have, especially changes
that you feel are important that I missed. For the purpose of
keeping my email sorted into nice, neat piles, please respond to
[email protected] (Yes, .com. Watch the .com.) If you
really, really want I can also be reached at
[email protected]