The term “containers” is heavily overused. Also, depending on the context, it can mean different things to different people.
Traditional Linux containers are really just ordinary processes on a Linux system. These groups of processes are isolated from other groups of processes using resource constraints (control groups [cgroups]), Linux security constraints (Unix permissions, capabilities, SELinux, AppArmor, seccomp, etc.), and namespaces (PID, network, mount, etc.).