Discussions around openness frequently gravitate towards technology standards and the bodies that support them (i.e. IETF, ONF). Standards are meant for cross-industry collaboration on a set of technologies that have a high degree of interdependence in multi-vendor environments. When a particular protocol is standardized, for example, it prevents one vendor from using its IP rights around the technology to prevent other vendors from implementing the protocol. In this regard, standards ensure a level playing field.