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How to secure a LAMP server on CentOS or RHEL

LAMP is a software stack composed of Linux (an operating system as a base layer), Apache (a web server that “sits on top” of the OS), MySQL (or MariaDB, as a relational database management system), and finally PHP (a server-side scripting language that is used to process and display information stored in the database). In this article we will assume that each component of the stack is already up and running, and will focus exclusively on securing the LAMP server(s).