How to Calculate Network Addresses with ipcalc

The math behind IP addresses is convoluted. Our nice IPv4 addresses start out as 32-bit binary numbers, which are then converted to base 10 numbers in four 8-bit fields. Decimal numbers are easier to manage than long binary strings; still, calculating address ranges, netmasks, and subnets is a bit difficult and error-prone, except for the brainiacs who can do binary conversions in their heads. For the rest of us, meet ipcalc and ipv6calc.