Community: Where Have All the HOWTOs Gone?

By Jim Sansing

A lot has been written about the direction of Linux and
Free/Open Source Software. Most of it is unsolicited advice on how
the Linux and FOSS community can make Linux and FOSS applications
more business or consumer friendly (translation: what you people
should be doing for me).

Many of the conclusions are improbable because they are reached
by starting from wrong assumptions, such as that the community
consists of a bunch of egotistical code addicts who can be taunted
into programming anything. Actually, the community is made up of
more than coders, and all members of the community have diverse
interests outside of computers. And we especially like it when we
can use FOSS applications to support those interests, which is a
hint on where we find our inspiration.

We also give feedback to developers and provide help to each
other because that is how communities behave. In this article, I
would like to address the whole community on the direction of Linux
and Free/Open Source Software (translation: what we should be doing
for ourselves).

I recently built a new desktop computer from scratch for the
first time. It is built with server quality parts and should last
me for well over 5 years. My new machine is built around an Opteron
CPU, so I have gotten to see the 2.6 kernel in 64-bit mode.

The short version of this story is that I have installed Gentoo,
Fedora Core 2, and SuSE 9.1 Professional several times on my
personal ultimate box, and it has been more difficult than my first
installation of Slackware 96 on a 386-33. Some of the problems were
because of the motherboard for the Opteron (finally fixed with 2
BIOS updates). Some were because there are not 64-bit versions of
applications (especially browser plugins).

I have ongoing issues with my SBLive 5.1 card because the ALSA
fixes have not been included in the kernel updates that I have
applied. But what has made this experience particularly upleasant
has been wading through the hundreds of postings of false hope that
turn up in my searches for what I need to do to solve my

When I installed Slackware, I had to examine the supported
hardware lists before even trying to install the kernel. To install
XFree86, I ran the xf86config script, but because the database of
chipsets was limited, I had to enter video timing information by
hand. To customize FVWM desktop menus, I editted M4 macro files. I
had to configure PPP manually and then wrote a shell script to
choose between setting my modem to connect to my ISP, my employer,
and my wife’s employer. I configured applications in their dot
files. Once, I fought a Sendmail configuration. I even learned how
to custom configure x3270 in .Xresources.

This may sound overwhelming to Linux and FOSS converts who have
only installed a Linux distribution using a GUI, but it really
wasn’t that bad. Of course, I was an IBM mainframer, working in the
world of Job Control Language (JCL) and assembly language, so mere
shell scripts and configuration files were not obstacles. But even
more importantly the information was easy to find. There were
current HOWTOs or man pages on every one of the above tasks to get
me started.

Today, the Linux kernel supports 32 bit and 64 bit CPUs, SMP,
IDE, EIDE, SCSI, SATA, RAID, USB, 3D video, soundcards,
serial/cable/ISDN/DSL modems, NICs, printers, and many other
hardware components, each with multiple chipset and firmware
possiblities, that a self-administering user must manage when
automatic detection is not successful or errors occur. But at least
the amount of hardware to configure is limited.

There are multiple levels of Free/Open Source Software choices,
including file systems, X and its window managers, the desktop
environment, web browsers, email and newsgroup clients and servers,
multimedia applications, office software, editors, programming
languages and their libraries, development tools for desktop and
web applications, databases and other server applications, and of
course, games.

There are interdependent effects between the hardware and
software. And then there are the dependencies, which may have
dependencies that also have dependencies. We have the hard-working
FOSS developers to thank for this abundance of choice. But it makes
putting together a system more complicated every year.

Finding answers to all of the questions this situation poses is
becoming more and more difficult. It is not because the answers are
not there, we have plenty of people who are willing and able to
help. Instead, the growth and commercialization of Linux and FOSS
applications has had a subtle effect on the ability of the
community to support its members. It is not differences between
distributions raising the specter of forking. It is not the
GUIfication of interfaces. It is not even proprietary code. The
problem is that as the complexity of the system has increased, the
information on how to manage that complexity has not kept pace. To
put it bluntly, the documentation stinks.

This is not to say that documentation from proprietary sources
is any better. Those manuals mostly explain the obvious and their
troubleshooting sections blame the user for nearly all problems.
But I am not the only
who is frustrated
by the situation.

I believe that this is final barrier to widespread adoption of
Linux. I really don’t care about Aunt Tilly or Joe Sixpack. The
newbies I would like to see are the somewhat technical users with
zero Linux/UNIX background who are still intimidated by the
learning curve. If this issue is eliminated, then more of them will
be interested in trying out FOSS applications like Firefox and
OpenOffice.org on Linux.

And sooner rather than later, the Linux and FOSS “market share”
will be in double digits, and vendors will be motivated to support
Linux on an equal footing with MS Windows and Mac OS. This will (1)
make it easier to develop and support FOSS applications and (2) add
to the number of people developing the cute little applications
that are the only reason Aunt Tilly and Joe Sixpack own a

Information is the key to control. The reason that the GPL has
been successful is because it guarantees everyone access to
information. But it is also the reason Google has been successful.
When there is too much data to sort through, information is lost in
the noise. Almost all of the information needed to install and
maintain Linux and FOSS applications is available, it is just
poorly organized. If the community is to maintain control of Linux
and FOSS applications, we must ensure that the necessary
information is openly available in Living HOWTOs. I am not arrogant
enough to expect developers to do it for us or naive enough to
expect somebody else to do it. The truth is, we in the Linux and
FOSS user community have talked the talk, but we have not walked
the walk when it comes to contributing back to documentation. We
owe the FOSS developers the best documentation on the planet, and
we can create it by working together more intelligently.

Living HOWTOs

The Linux Kernel Mailing List works because everyone on it has a
similar background, so assumptions are legitimate. When someone
says, “See so-and-so’s patches to fix that,” nothing more needs to
be said. On the other hand, forums and newsgroups, when used for
general support, should not make those assumptions but do so
anyway. When seeking specific installation or configuration help,
searching forums or googling newsgroups for the component plus an
error message or other keywords might actually return similar
questions, but the answers are more often than not incomplete. Most
forum threads follow one of a few basic scripts:

  1. If the original post is particularly sarcastic or downright
    hostile, the responses are RTFM flames. These tend to be the
    longest threads.
  2. Other threads start with, “It’s broke, tell me how to fix it,”
    followed by an agonizing exchange, in which more experienced users
    desperately try to help a newbie ask the right question.
  3. Some requests get responses along the lines of, “I had a
    problem a little bit like yours and here is what I did… YMMV.”
    And there it stops. You never know if the solution worked or
  4. Other queries get answers like, “Here are steps 3 and 4 in a 6
    step process. Glad to be of help.”
  5. But far too many have only the original post, either because
    the question has already been answered elsewhere but the poster was
    not creative enough with keywords to find it in his searching, or
    because no member of that particular forum knows the answer.

This is no more than throwing stuff against a wall to see what
sticks. We need to admit that forums are our enemy.

Unfortunately, the best help from the past is no longer up to
the job, because it is simply too overwhelming. There are several
problems with HOWTOs as they exist today. Using the 8 RAID HOWTOs
from the Linux Documentation
, as an example, here are some major ones:

  1. There is usually one author, so the subject matter is often
    focused on a single issue which fairly quickly becomes outdated,
    such as the Antares-RAID-sparcLinux-HOWTO which is for hardware
    RAID built around the 5070 SBUS controller by Antares
  2. There is overlapping information. In the RAID group, there are
    3 explanations of the RAID levels and 4 descriptions of building a
    kernel in varying degrees of detail.
  3. There are inconsistencies. Some have troubleshooting
    information in the chapters, others put it in appendices. One uses
    a question and answer format which makes it feel disjointed. Of the
    8, there are 3 html navigation formats.
  4. I did not analyze the RAID HOWTOs for contradictions, but
    considering that they were written over a period between 1998 and
    2004, there are undoubtedly differences in status displays and
    possibly command arguments. So to get a basic understanding of
    running RAID on Linux, at least 2 of the HOWTOs, and maybe more
    should be read.
  5. HOWTO maintenance depends on the author. Most ask for
    contributions to be emailed to them. This means that contributions
    might not be added, even if the email address is current.
    And to get an idea of how successful this is proving to be, here is
    the distribution of the latest Updates to all HOWTOs from the LDP:

    • 1995: 1
    • 1996: 5
    • 1997: 22
    • 1998: 36
    • 1999: 26
    • 2000: 63
    • 2001: 75
    • 2002: 100
    • 2003: 63
    • 2004: 78
    • Total: 469 (NOTE: The majority of these were originally
      written before 2000. However, there are 13 new ones since I started
      working on this article in July.)

I’m not putting down the folks at the LDP. They are doing their
job which is not to write HOWTOs, but to maintain them. I just wish
all the ones I need were there and up to date (and no, I am not
going to write a dozen HOWTOs about subjects I know only a little
about). The community needs living HOWTOs. The way to do accomplish
this in a truly open way is with Wiki. Have you seen wikipedia lately?
Starting from essentially nothing, it has grown to rival the best
of commercial encyclopedias. This is not a new idea within the
Linux and FOSS community, either. There are some Linux Wiki sites
with basic information and a few projects are starting to use it.
The information is fairly thin, which emphasizes the need for broad
support from the community. To see what has been done, check

  1. LinuxQuestions.org
  2. The Waikato Linux
    Users Group Wiki
  3. GNU/Linux
    Users Group del Litoral Wiki
  4. The Fedora Core
    (This is not a RedHat site, it is maintained by the
    fedora.us site and is hosted by the University of
  5. The Arch Linux Wiki
    (Primarily information specific to Arch Linux.)
  6. The Knoppix Linux
    (Primarily information specific to Knoppix
  7. The Alsa Open Source
  8. The CE
    Linux Public Wiki
    (This is used by an industry group that
    is focused on Linux for consumer electronics devices to coordinate
    their activities.)
  9. Linux Wiki
    (Apparently, I am not the only one interested in this type of

Notice that the Fedora Core community (a subset of the Linux
community) has set up their own Wiki to collect information about
FC in one place. As a side note, I am blown away by what these
folks have done. In less than a year, they have created multiple FC
repositories, news sites, and help sites and have influenced the
look and feel of a RedHat distribution with the addition of yum and
non-FOSS licensed RPMs. There may be those who dislike RedHat, but
it is obvious that there are also many who are completely dedicated
to the distribution. RedHat should be thinking hard about the first
birthday present (or party) for this community.

To produce the kind of documentation worthy of the Linux and
FOSS community, we must take it upon ourselves to create and
maintain a Linux HOWTO Wiki. We must focus on a central Wiki with
links to FOSS project Wikis where they exist. If there are dozens
of Linux Wikis competing with each other, then none will cover
topics completely, and the situation will not be much better than
it is now. If the distributions want to maintain their own Wikis to
complement the main one with information unique to their
distribution, that would be fine. But the Linux and FOSS community
must be agnostic in documenting how Linux and FOSS works. We need
detailed instructions for every hardware component, software
driver, utility, and application, and examples, examples, and more
examples. With dozens of people refining the most minute details,
we may eventually discover vendor personnel reading it to learn how
their own products work under Linux.

One section of the documentation should cover the
infrastructure. This includes the Linux kernel, drivers,
networking, system utilities, and X. Another section should
document window managers, desktop environments, and FOSS desktop
and server applications. While there are many introductory
tutorials for major applications, we should aim for complete
coverage. (I have seen too many postings sneeringly correcting
someone who has claimed that some function cannot be performed. But
if it is not documented, it may as well not exist.) For each
subject, there should be:

  1. Overview: History, definitions, and the target
    audience as appropriate
  2. Installation and configuration: Step-by-step
    instructions with links to related procedures (ie. the
    configuration of /etc files would link to text editors), hardware,
    system, and library requirements, and useful explanations of
    all parameters
  3. Administration: Customized system-wide
    defaults, software plugins and hardware add-ons, upgrade
    procedures, security issues, how to collect and use performance
  4. User guide: In some cases complete
    documentation, in others supplements to project documentation,
    links to tutorials
  5. Troubleshooting: Where to find error
    information, error message definitions, common gotchas
  6. References: Relevant man pages, where to get
    source code, links to helpful articles, related applications
  7. Acknowledgements: Project leaders, major

Another value this Wiki could provide is the means for the Linux
and FOSS community to set its own direction and express itself to
the rest of the industry. Topics that could be covered in other
sections include:

  • Explanations of Linux and Free/Open Source philosophy and
    licenses, with links to real-world examples of the advantages they
    provide to individual users, businesses, non-profits, and
  • Anti-FUD literature, with links to articles and sites that have
    supporting statistics
  • Honest and thorough evaluations of hardware in terms of Linux
    driver support
  • Programming topics, such as how to build useful scripts, how to
    write plug-ins for various FOSS applications, how to create X,
    Gnome, and KDE applications, how to write a driver module, and lots
    of sample code
  • Discussions of design standards for desktop and GUI interfaces,
    help pages, etc.
  • Discussions of new projects to test the need for applications
    and get a clear understanding of the feature set interested users
    really want, which has the potential of establishing the Linux and
    FOSS community as the leader in innovation, since the best source
    of innovation is from free and open discussion of ideas
  • Accumulations of prior art to aid in fighting any patent
    infringement cases brought against Linux or FOSS applications

To get the Linux HOWTO Wiki started, HOWTOs, info documents, man
pages, and READMEs could be converted, depending on copyright
limitations. There will need to be ongoing maintenance to make sure
that requests for information are answered and ensure coherency.
And in the true spirit of the Linux and FOSS community, it will
need to be translated into many languages. Of course, this sounds
like a lot of work, and it is. Freedom is not cheap. But we have a
resource that is worth its weight in gold: Linux User Groups.

I believe that the main reason Linux and FOSS have had such
incredible success is because of all the installfests held by LUGs.
That created a critical mass of users and made it feasible for the
for-profit distributions to invest in creating more user friendly
installers and applications which led to more users. So lately,
installfests have been fewer and farther between. If the LUGs were
now to take ownership of sections of the Linux HOWTO Wiki, a strong
foundation could be built quickly and maintained effectively. Each
page could have a text or graphic logo of the LUG sponsoring it,
which would help newbies understand what is really meant by the
term “Linux and FOSS community.”

To endure over the long term, the Linux HOWTO Wiki will have to
be hosted by a neutral party with the resources to help maintain
it. I thought of several, but narrowed it to 3 candidates:

  • The Linux Documenation Project: This site is hosted by ibiblio.org. Unfortunately, there is a
    thread on the general discussion list from 2002 about converting
    HOWTOs from docbook to Wiki in which most comments were negative
    and the end result was that it did not happen. Now that Wiki is
    more mature, and if there is a groundswell of support, they might
    change their position.
  • Existing help sites: The sites Linux Questions, JustLinux (LinuxNewbie.org),
    Linux Forums, and several
    others are already providing a variety of tools for helping users.
    Together, they could create a group of sites, each specializing in
    complementary areas, such as:

    • Kernel, Drivers, and GNU Utilities
    • X, Window Managers, and Desktop Environments
    • Office Applications
    • Server Applications
    • Development tools
  • Google: Our favorite search engine folks built one hell of a
    business from Linux and FOSS. Helping to document it would be an
    appropriate way to contribute back to the community that gave them
    that opportunity.

I will be contacting as many LUGs as I can to get a sense of how
much support there is for this project. If there is a reasonable
number in favor, then I will try to contact potential hosting sites
to find a home for the Linux HOWTO Wiki. I will report back here on
the status of this effort in a couple of months.

If you are interested in learning more about Wiki, here are two

was a network admin for 10 years and has been
a network software developer for the last 10 years. He has used
Linux as his only personal OS since 1996 and is looking forward to
world domination.