How to benchmark Disk performance on Linux

Just bought the latest and greatest – and especially fastest – SDD? Or upgraded your phone’s microSD memory card? Before you start using your shiny new hardware, you may want to run a performance check against the drive. Is the write and read speed up to manufacturer’s specifications? How does your performance compare with that of others? Is that 1TB flash drive you bought on an auction site from China really as fast as the listing said it was? Let us find out!