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How to boot into command line on Ubuntu or Debian

The Linux desktop comes with a display manager (e.g., GDM, KDM, LightDM), which lets the desktop machine automatically boot into a GUI-based login environment. However, what if you want to disable GUI and boot straight into a text-mode console? For example, you are troubleshooting desktop related issues, or want to run a heavy-duty application that does not require desktop GUI.